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Scythia

Scythia (Greek Skuthia, in English pronounced /si?i?/ or /si?i?/) - was a multinational region of Central Eurasia in the classical era, encompassing parts of Ukrainian Steppe, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the northern Caucasus. Ancient Greeks gave the name Scythia (or Great Scythia) to all the lands north-east of Western Europe and the northern coast of the Black Sea, unknown to them in that era. Little Scythia is the name of a modern Eastern European region. Later, Great Scythia became the name of the region known today as Central Eurasia. The Scythians - the Greeks' name for this nomadic people- inhabited Scythia from the 8th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. Its location and extent varied over time but usually extended farther to the west than is indicated on the map opposite.[1] Geography The region known to classical authors as Scythia included: The Pontic-Caspian steppe: Ukraine, southern Russia and western Kazakhstan (inhabited by Scythians from at least the 8th century BCE)[citation needed] The Kazakh steppe: northern Kazakhstan and the adjacent portions of Russia Sarmatia, corresponding to parts of southern Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland and the eastern Balkans[2] Saka tigrakhauda, corresponding to parts of Central Asia, including Kyrgyzstan, southeastern Kazakhstan and Kashgar Sakastan, corresponding to southern Afghanistan and eastern Iran, extending to the Sistan Basin Scythia Minor, corresponding to the lower Danube river area west of the Black Sea, with a part in Roman

a and a part in Bulgaria The northern Caucasus area [edit]First Scythian kingdom In the 7th century BCE Scythians penetrated from the territories north of the Black Sea across the Caucasus. The early Scythian kingdoms were dominated by inter-ethnic forms of dependency based on subjugation of agricultural populations in eastern South Caucasia, plunder and taxes (occasionally, as far as Syria), regular tribute (Media), tribute disguised as gifts (Egypt), and possibly also payments for military support (Assyria).[citation needed] It is likely that the same dynasty ruled in Scythia during most of its history. The name of Koloksai, a legendary founder of a royal dynasty, is mentioned by Alcman in the 7th century BCE. Prototi and Madis, Scythian kings in the Near Eastern period of their history, and their successors in the north Pontic steppes belonged to the same dynasty. Herodotus lists five generations of a royal clan that probably reigned at the end of the 7th to 6th centuries BCE: prince Anacharsis, Saulius, Idanthyrsus, Gnurus, Lycus, and Spargapithes.[3] After being defeated by the Chinese and driven from the Near East, in the first half of the 6th century BCE, Scythians had to re-conquer lands north of the Black Sea. In the second half of that century, Scythians succeeded in dominating the agricultural tribes of the forest-steppe and placed them under tribute. As a result their state was reconstructed with the appearance of the Second Scythian Kingdom which reached its zenith in the 4th century BCE.