Beautiful Africa

Military campaigns

After securing his authority over the entire empire, Darius embarked on a campaign to Egypt where he defeated the armies of the Pharaoh and secured the lands that Cambyses had conquered while incorporating a large portion of Egypt into the Achaemenid Empire. Darius also led his armies to the Indus River, building fortresses and establishing Persian rule.[22] [edit]Invasion of Indus Valley Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire. See also: Iranian invasion of Indus Valley In 516 BC, Darius embarked on a campaign to Central Asia, Aria and Bactria and then marched into Afghanistan to Taxila Satrapy in modern Pakistan. Darius spent winter of 516-515 BC in Gandhara, preparing for the to conquer the Indus Valley. Darius conquered the Indus in 515 BC.[23] Darius I conquered Indus Valley from Gandhara to modern Karachi and appointed the Greek Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Indus to Suez. Darius then marched through Bolan Pass and returned through Arachosia and Drangiana back to Persia. [edit]Babylonian revolt Archers frieze from Darius's palace at Susa. Detail of the beginning of the frieze, left After Bardiya was murdered, widespread revolts occurred throughout the empire, especially on the eastern side. Darius asserted his position as king by force, taking his armies throughout the empire, suppressing each revolt individually. The most notable of all the revolts is the Babylonian revolt which was led by Neb

chadnezzar III. This revolt occurred when Otanes withdrew much of the army out of Babylon to aid Darius in suppressing other revolts. Darius felt that the Babylonian people had taken advantage of him and deceived him, which resulted in Darius gathering up a large army and marching to Babylon. At Babylon, Darius was met with closed gates and a series of defenses to keep him and his armies out of Babylon.[24] Darius encountered mockery and taunting from the rebels, including the famous saying "Oh yes, you will capture our city, when mules shall have foals." For a year and a half, Darius and his armies were unable to capture Babylon, though he attempted many tricks and strategies—even copying that which Cyrus the Great had employed when he captured Babylon. However, the situation changed in Darius's favor when, according to the story, a mule owned by Zopyrus, a high-ranking soldier, foaled. Following this, a plan was hatched for Zopyrus to pretend to be a deserter, enter the Babylonian camp, and gain the trust of the Babylonians. The plan was successful, and Darius's army eventually surrounded the city and overcame the rebels.[25] During this revolt, Scythian nomads took advantage of the disorder and chaos and invaded Persia. Darius first finished defeating the rebels in Elam, Assyria, and Babylon and then attacked the Scythian invaders. He pursued the invaders, who led him to a marsh; there he found no known enemies but an enigmatic Scythian tribe.[26]